A Colorful World of Innovation: Wedgwood’s Jasperware

November 11th, 2016 | posted by Susan Lapene

“Beautiful forms and compositions are not made by chance, nor can they ever, in any material, be made at small expense” – Josiah Wedgwood

In a career that lasted over 40 years and fundamentally spurred the industrialization of the manufacturing of stoneware, Josiah Wedgwood and his factory achieved perfection in ceramic art.

When people think about ceramics, they tend to only think in simpler terms: jugs and mugs made from earthen clay. However, the range and sophistication of ceramics reaches far beyond that and it was Josiah Wedgwood who changed that notion with his invention of jasperware. A first viewing of Wedgwood’s jasperware typically elicits a reaction of awe. Lots or little previous knowledge of the medium aside, there’s no denying jasperware’s incomparable elegance and impact in the decorative arts.

No other type of stoneware more accurately reflects the perfection that Josiah achieved than his invention of jasperware, named after the natural mineral jasper. The result of several thousand individual experiments, jasperware was introduced to the public in 1775 and it was groundbreaking in the field. Some even describe this as the most important development in ceramics since the Chinese discovered porcelain some 1,000 years earlier. After perfecting the technique of crafting wares out of this new material, Wedgwood opted to adorn the surfaces with stark-white Classical motifs, giving it what we know today as the “Wedgwood look.”

Wedgwood produced jasperware in approximately 30 different colors. With the vast number of jasper pieces produced by Wedgwood, it is easy to distinguish between them all by the multitude of colors possible in this new-found medium. More than that, color is also one of the main contributing factors in determining the value of jasperware. Of course, while condition and shape also play a part in a piece’s value, some colors just simply demand higher prices than others. Let’s navigate the briefing below to learn the basics behind the colors of jasperware.


 

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Pale “Wedgwood” Blue

This calm, light blue type may be described an iconic staple in Wedgwood jasperware. From its development, early on in Josiah’s experimentations and into the contemporary period, this blue has remained a recognizable Wedgwood signature worldwide. Importantly, older pieces of pale blue are distinguishable from its modern descendants because of they have a deeper hue that offers a greater contrast to the white reliefs that adorn it. Today, it is considered the flagship color of Wedgwood pieces.

 

 

 


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Black

Perhaps the most exotic, this color allows the greatest contrast between the classical white relief ornamentation and the dark, rich body of the pieces. Produced in various spurts beginning in 1878, it was abandoned in 1977.

 

 

 

 


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Dark Royal or Portland Blue

This color is quite variable, ranging from a bright lively blue to very dark navy. In most collector’s books, the clear majority of jasper pieces pictured fall in this color category. This is no surprise: up until the very end of jasper production, dark blue was by far the most popular and best-selling color.

 

 

 


 

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Crimson (Red)

Red is considered the rarest and the most darling of colors. Only produced in a short window of time, it’s extremely hard to find pieces of this variety. Initially introduced into Josiah’s repertoire of different colors in the late 1880s, its short production was suspended by 1910. Discontinued due to its difficulty in craft (color bleeding was the main culprit), the number of unacceptable pieces from the kiln made this color unprofitable. Because of the small number produced, this color is highly collectible on the market. In recent years, this color demands the highest prices, with even insignificant shapes taking ten times the price of significant shape in a different color.

 


 

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Tri Color

Just like other color varieties, this tri-color variation starts from the same white base. Differing, these pieces feature two or three different colors. Whereas different colors demand different treatments, to successfully apply different ones is an extraordinary feat. The lavish appearance of this variety not only displays great creativity on Josiah’s part, but a high level of craftsmanship not witnessed before. Naturally, these sell for much higher prices than most single color pieces. And, in many instances, this variety is as valuable as crimson and are eagerly sought after by collectors.

 

 

 


Lilac

Produced in various stages from the late 18th century first decade of the 20th century, this color varies enormously. Pieces in this color category can range from delicate purplish-pink in the earlier stages of production to a truer lavender color in the later periods.


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Green

Among the various shades of green that the Wedgwood factory produced, it is the lighter variety, sage, that attracted the most attention and is seen most often. At the end of the 20th century, a darker, richer olive green was introduced. However, like the crimson variety, this color was easily subject to color bleeding and therefore was only produced during a short window of time.

 

 

 


 

In the years after the development of jasperware, the importance of Wedgwood is still far reaching. Undeniably, the Wedgwood’s early experimentations were a turning point in the industry. With their unmistakable designs and forms, the different colors of Wedgwood ceramics continue to enthrall collectors and consumers alike.

 

Sèvres Porcelain + Napoléon Bonaparte: The Ideal Duo

November 3rd, 2016 | posted by George Peralta

Few things in history bear a distinction quite like Sèvres Porcelain. Representative of both royal and artistic excellence, Sèvres vases, urns, pedestals, and dinnerware have long been heralded as the standard for fine design and craftsmanship. Yet, more than that, Sèvres is an icon for the changing tastes that encapsulated French monarchs who were completely enamored by the creativity and delicacy of the pieces.

A Sèvres bisque porcelain bust of the great Napoleon Bonaparte was created during the ruler's lifetime

A Sèvres bisque porcelain bust of the great Napoleon Bonaparte that was created during the ruler’s lifetime

From its  inception in 1739 at the Château de Vincennes, Sèvres porcelain manufactory was favored by French royalty and epitomized ultimate luxury. Objects commissioned by French monarchs, beginning with Louis XV, were used as extensions of power, assertions of their access to luxury, and became a means of royal veneration.

A Sèvres-style porcelain palace covered urn that depicts the marriage of Napoléon to the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria

A Sèvres-style porcelain palace covered urn that depicts the marriage of Napoléon to the Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria

Undoubtedly, the success Sèvres porcelain would not be so without the patronage and support France’s first emperor, Napoléon Bonaparte. While much of Napoléon’s life surrounds his political and militaristic endeavors as France’s first emperor, his reign was also characterized by a lifelong affair with the decorative arts. Because Napoléon’s power was not predicated on divinity, a clear demonstration of the material and cultural benefits brought by his administration was necessary. This shift in the nature of executive power prompted a change in the design and decoration of Sèvres porcelain.

Gracefully shaped, the body is adorned with the exquisite gilt motifs of the Napoléonic Empire, hand-painted over the signature deep cobalt blue glaze made famous by the renowned Sèvres manufactory

The body is adorned with gilt motifs of the Napoléonic Empire, hand-painted over the signature deep cobalt blue glaze made famous by Sèvres

Luxurious goods and artistic production under Napoléon flourished in France like never before with the aid of Sèvres porcelain. Often called the Empire style, this period lends its name to the new symbols, décor, and triumphs in art that Napoléon used to stamp his era. Sèvres porcelain, therefore, became the articulation for Napoléon’s imperial identity as he eagerly promoted the elaborately ornamented pieces that Sevres crafted. In fact, Napoléon commissioned eleven dinner services that Sèvres expertly crafted to chart the triumphs and benefits of his regime. Consequently, Sèvres pieces commissioned by and made under Napoléon become the material embodiment of his power.

Importantly, luxurious goods depicting and referencing the Emperor’s legendary reign continued to be crafted even after his fall from power. Signifying his mark in history, Napoléon’s influence and rule continued to be celebrated and memorialized. Now, nearly a century later, adoration and admiration for Sèvres porcelain and its aide in Napoléon’s image and power still exists. Modern day obsession for the gutsy emperor prevails and just one look at decorative arts under his direction shows the immense influence he carried.

 

We invite you to visit our current exhibition: Napoléon: General. Emperor. Legend. The exhibition is being held at our gallery, 630 Royal Street New Orleans, in the heart of the French quarter. It is free and open to the public. We would love for you to join us in our intrigue for Napoléon!

The Art of War: “The Battle of Issus” Chess Set

October 28th, 2016 | posted by Deborah Choate
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The stunning set is crafted entirely of luxury materials, including a rhonodite and malachite board

A twist of the base causes each figure to move, enhancing the wonder of this extraordinary set

A twist of the base causes each figure to move, enhancing the wonder of this extraordinary set

Chess, an ancient game of military strategy, beautifully mirrors the human experience. As stated by Benjamin Franklin, “…life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it…” Highly respected for centuries, chess was viewed as a fixture of noble culture during the Middle Ages and Renaissance; the game was often used as a didactic mechanism, teaching gentleman of the aristocracy everything from offensive war tactics to caution.

No chess set more perfectly reflects the strategic, militaristic nature of the game than “The Battle of Issus” chess set.

This one-of-a-kind chess set depicts the historical Battle of Issus, a conflict between the invading Greek army, led by Alexander the Great, and the Persians, commanded by King Darius III, in 333 BC. Atop the game board’s sixty-four squares, well-armed opposing armies face off in a fight to the last. Each extravagant game piece is crafted of 14K gold and encrusted with semiprecious stones and vibrant, multi-colored enamel. In fact, in addition to the pink rhodonite and green malachite that comprises the surface of the grid and base of each game piece, the chess set features approximately 4 kilograms of 14K gold, 2.3 kilograms of 24K gold, 5 kilograms of pure silver, 320 grams of garnets, plus accents of pearls, turquoise, rose quartz and enamel. Every last lavish detail of “The Battle of Issus” chess set sparkles!

Perhaps the most amazing feature, each intricate piece is mechanical—seemingly by magic, the ancient Battle of Issus comes to life on the board!

All pieces are crafted of 14k gold with vivid enamel and semiprecious stones

All pieces are crafted of 14k gold with vivid enamel and semiprecious stones

The base, formed of pure silver, features elaborately detailed combat scenes in high relief

The base, formed of pure silver, features elaborately detailed combat scenes in high relief

In place of queens, the Greek goddess of war Athena stands next to Alexander while the winged Persian god of war joins Darius. Rooks have been transformed into columned temples and the Persepolis. Meanwhile, Grecian warships sail through mighty waves, and on the opposing side, lumbering elephants charge into battle. Horsemen and footmen complete the troops, each endowed with his own sword, javelin, or bow.

Hand-drawn design for game piece in the shape of a Grecian warship

Not to be ignored, the game board itself is an incredible work of art. The grid is crafted of solid squares of pink rhodonite and green malachite, which coordinate with the base of each piece. Continuing the military motif, the sides of the board are formed of pure gleaming silver and are sculpted in high relief. Each side covered with archers, horsemen, chariots, and elephants locked in eternal combat.

The product of 14,000 hours of labor over the course of a decade, “The Battle of Issus” chess set is impeccable. Crafted by a master jeweler as a gift to his daughter, he meticulously studied ancient sculptures, literary texts, and coins to ensure the historical accuracy of the chess set and crafted each and every component by hand.

Incredibly luxurious yet designed to the played, “The Battle of Issus” chess set is undeniably the most extravagant and mechanically complex chess set in the world.

The Haunting Death Mask of Napoléon Bonaparte

October 20th, 2016 | posted by Robert Boese
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Death mask of Napoléon Bonaparte by Dr. Francesco Antommarchi

The deposed Emperor of France, Napoléon Bonaparte, spent the final years of his life on the remote island of St. Helena. It is there, 1,162 miles from the west coast of Africa, that Napoléon died a lonely death on May 5, 1821. One and a half days later, a plaster cast was made from the face of the fallen ruler. Nearly two centuries later, mystery surrounds the haunting death mask of Napoléon Bonaparte.

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Historically, it has been accepted that Dr. Francesco Antommarchi, Napoléon’s personal physician and companion, took the original “parent cast” from the somber face Napoléon Bonaparte. However, it is almost certain that the mold was created under far more mysterious circumstances. Today, there many who believe that the “parent cast” was not taken by Napoléon’s physician but by one of his captors, Dr. Francis Burton of Britain’s 66th Regiment. Most likely, Dr. Burton gathered materials to mix a simple plaster-of-Paris and took the mold on May 7, 1821. He then reluctantly entrusted the mold to Madame Bertrand, a member of Napoléon’s court who shared his exile on the island of St. Helena, for safekeeping.

30-3849_3According to legend, Madame Bertrand secretly removed the valuable majority of the mask and returned to France with her husband, keeping the precious treasure for herself. Dr. Burton later stated that Madame Bertrand stole the mask and attempted to sue her for its return, to no avail. Upon her return to France, Madame Bertrand passed the plaster mold to Dr. Antommarchi, who then commissioned the firm Richard et Quesnel to produce several bronze and plaster casts of it.

Over the years, most of these bronze and plaster casts have found their way into the permanent collections of museums around the globe. Perhaps the most famous, however, is housed at the Cabildo of the Louisiana State Museum right here in New Orleans. The Cabildo’s death mask of Napoléon was personally brought to New Orleans by Dr. Antommarchi in 1834. During the chaos and confusion of the Civil War, the mask was removed from the museum and disappeared altogether, only to reappear–in a garbage bin–in 1866! The death mask was finally returned, safe and sound, to the Louisiana State Museum in 1909.

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Medallion below the neck reading “Napoleon Emp. et Roi/Souscription/Dr. Antommarchi 1833”

Are you intrigued by Napoléon Bonaparte? We invite you to join us for “Napoléon: General. Emperor. Legend” November 5th – January 7th. This comprehensive exhibition will be held at M.S. Rau Antiques, 630 Royal Street, New Orleans; it is free and open to the public.

Kaleidoscope Brilliancy: Lightning Ridge Black Opals

October 14th, 2016 | posted by Ludovic Rousset

Pandora. Light of the World. Empress. Immediately recognizable for its flashing, mingling array of colors, the opal is the one of the most elusive, unique gemstones in the world. In the centuries since the gem’s discovery, the opal has endured as a symbol of healing, protection, and hope.

A kaleidoscope of colors is exhibited in this striking 16.44-carat black opal, which hails from the famed Lightning Ridge Mine in Australia

A kaleidoscope of colors is exhibited in this striking 16.44-carat black opal, which hails from the famed Lightning Ridge Mine in Australia

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The 8.40 carats of Australian black opals in these sumptuous earrings perfectly display the characteristic brilliance and array of color for which Lightning Ridge opals are famous

Opal has been the focus of numerous legends and prophecies and has been counted alongside the finest gemstones in the world in terms of brilliance and rarity. Legends from the Ancient Greeks and Romans tell of the opal guarding citizens from disease and predicting divine intervention. Into the Middle Ages, high-ranking officials used the opal to foresee atmospheric patterns and temperature changes. A stone with the power to strengthen vision and sooth the heart, eyes, and nerves, the opal was a driving force amongst the myths and legends of other gemstones. While a veil of superstition draped the opal with the release of Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Anne of Gerstein, the fear of the opal did not discourage its praise and development. With continuing stories about the reputation and high status of the opal, it is no surprise that the stone continues to reach celebrated heights in both value and regard.

Though the opal was discovered centuries ago, the finest variety was not discovered 1905 in Lightning Ridge, Australia. Before this time, it was a dismal mystery to everyone what lied beneath this dry, quiet region. However, upon the first dig, an eager Charles Nettleton discovered a specimen of opal that would aesthetically surpass any other previously known opal: The Lightning Ridge black opal. News of this pioneering discovery soon broke and the gemstone market erupted in satisfaction and excitement. Spreading out of Australia and into Europe, this black-opal type experienced important and massive praise more than any other opal-type before. Lightning Ridge, consequently, became synonymous with these hypnotic jewels.

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Brilliant white diamonds, weighing 1.43 total carats, add exceptional sparkle to this extraordinary platinum ring

Because the opal can contain an infinite number of patterns, no two are alike. It is this simple characteristic that sets the opal apart from any other gemstone. Black Lightning Ridge opals display plays of color unlike any other opal type. Black, meaning any dark body tone, enables the rainbow of spectral colors to bend and break in the opal, causing an intense and vivid play of contrasting and bright colors.

Modern day obsession with the opal erupted in the 1920s. A time of daring fashion, opulence, and utter abandon showed America at its height, the gemstone market welcomed in stunning new trends. The opal, consequently, was ushered in as one of the fixture gemstones in this decade.  Women’s draping, opulent, necklaces were now sprinkled with the flashing opal colors and black opals from the Lightning Ridge region continued their steady rise in admiration.

With its remarkable history and stable fixture in the gemstone market, the importance of the opal cannot be overexpressed. Because opals are reaching higher values with their increasing rarity, particulary those involving rich and pronounced colors, such as with black opals, are the most prized.

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