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An Age of Transformation: Women in Nineteenth Century Art

March 26th, 2015 | posted by Bill Rau
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George Morren, Le Renouveau (The Renewal), Circa 1892

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Jéan-Leon Gérôme, Leda and the Swan, Circa 1895

This is the second of a three part series of blog posts preceding our exhibition Innocence, Temptation and Power: The Evolution of Women in Art, on view at M.S. Rau Antiques from March 27 – May 4.

From the mid-nineteenth century, Western Europe and the United States were witness to an extraordinary cultural and social upheaval. Truly a period of transformation, the end of the 19th century can be characterized also as an era of contradiction. As the great generation of French academic painters such as Jean-Léon Gérôme, with their idealized female figures and neoclassical subjects, slowly waned, a new group of radical young artists began to emerge who devoted their oeuvres to a new ideal of modernity. The Impressionists unapologetically painted their impressions of their modern bourgeoisie world, including the women within it, which was undergoing a rapid period of revolution.

While, in many instances, women still found themselves regarded as secondary citizens, it was the onset of industrialization and the corresponding growth of the middle class that began to expand the role of women in society. This provided ample inspiration for late 19th century artists, who themselves contemplated “the woman question” and the changing views of womanhood, femininity and what it meant to be a woman. Henri Toulouse-Lautrec’s La Promeneuse perfectly illustrates the Impressionist treatment of middle-class women during the Belle Epoqué – women who embody a new, avant-garde femininity without being idealized.

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, La Promeneuse, Circa 1892

Indeed, traditional aestheticideals in general began to give way to a more revolutionary, individual artistic voice. In the same way, depictions of women in art slowly began to transform from object to subject in the eyes of the artist and the viewer, and the barrier between the private and public gradually began to descend. Yet, despite these advances, women were still expected to be the upholders of morality and put domestic and home responsibilities central in their lives. George Morren’s Le Renouveau (The Renewal) perfectly illustrates this juxtaposition. Depicting a wet-nurse breastfeeding a child, Morren places his female subject within a traditional “maternal” position, but also, more significantly, within a work scene. The “mother” in the scene is feeding the child not out of “natural” nurturing instinct but for wages, as a member of a flourishing industry. Both mother figure and worker, Morren’s wet-nurse epitomizes the updated, secularized Impressionist woman

Undeniably, as the Impressionists begin to capture their own lived experiences of everyday life, the range and treatment of women as a subject in art similarly expanded, offering viewers a glimpse of the lived experience of the late 19th century woman through the Impressionist canvas. Themes of bourgeois leisure, bohemian spectacle, urban culture, and intimate spaces dominate the genre moving into the 20th century – subjects that will only continue to expand into the modern era.

To learn more about the story of women in art, please join us for Innocence, Temptation and Power: The Evolution of Women in Art, on view at M.S. Rau Antiques from March 27 – May 4.

All Things in Bloom

March 21st, 2015 | posted by Susan Lapene
Entitled Geraniums, the piece displays Buffet’s renowned avant-garde style

Entitled Geraniums, the piece displays Buffet’s renowned avant-garde style

Chirping birds, sun-filled days, vibrant views, and breezy pleasantness… all of these herald the awakening of spring. In New Orleans, springtime is bustling with joyous occasions, festivals, and celebrations. People burst outdoors to soak up the sunshine and glorious weather until the thick humidity of June sets in. The warm, calm breeze meanders through the lush neighborhoods Uptown, the hustle and bustle Downtown, down the historic streets of the French Quarter, and into M.S. Rau Antiques, where many of our extraordinary pieces display an ode to springtime aesthetics in their expressive colors and floral motifs in different mediums.

Stamped with Meissen crossed swords and asterisks in blue underglaze, with impressed numerals

Stamped with Meissen crossed swords and asterisks in blue underglaze, with impressed numerals

Bernard Buffet, a French expressionist painter, created many pieces that portrayed brilliant bursts of bright color. While he painted religious scenes and landscapes, his floral depictions are some of his most vibrant and captivating. His piece, Geraniums, from 1978 depicts a blooming flourish of coral-colored flowers that dominate the scene. This bold floral design is accentuated by thick black outlines that heighten the dramatic effect of the composition. The slender flowers stretch upward and rich green paint colors the flowers’ leaves, serving as a perfect balance to the artist’s dramatic style. Geraniums, a symbol for determination and elegance, are a perfect representation of the beauty of Spring.  Part of the artistic group known as “L’homme Témoin” (“The Witness-Men”), Buffet’s canvases favored the expression of feeling over physical reality, and here all of the freshness of Spring emanates from his canvas.

Less dramatic, but no less beautiful, this Meissen Tea and Coffee Service features exquisite floral designs of the

The gem’s rich hue and brilliance are hallmarks of the famed Paraiba stones

The gem’s rich hue and brilliance are hallmarks of the famed Paraiba stones

“Meissen Rose” pattern. Meissen Porcelain was the first European factory to produce true or “hard paste” porcelain pieces. Each piece of this stunning thirty-nine piece collection has an individual cartouche of the floral bouquet design featuring fine layers of bright yellow, elegant blues, pinks, purples, and rich green paints. Exquisite 18K gold gilt borders enclose each bouquet design. These meticulously rendered designs show true precision and skill of the set’s craftsman. A Meissen set this large, with each piece individually painted in such a precise fashion, is extremely rare and heightens the extraordinary importance and artistry of the collection.

This Paraiba Tourmaline Ring features stone in a bright, refreshing green hue. Characterizing the abundance of greenery that reappears in the spring, this spearmint colored green gem boasts radiance and vibrancy. Set in 18K gold and platinum, this 8.06-carat gem is set in a halo of diamonds. To find one of this size is astonishing and extraordinary.

 

 

Everlasting Elegance: Goldscheider Ceramics

March 13th, 2015 | posted by Deborah Choate

Goldscheider ceramics, an Austrian ceramic manufacturing company founded in 1885, grew to become one of the most leading manufacturers of bronze, terracotta, and faience objects. Led under the astute direction of Friedrich Goldscheider, this company successfully opened subsidiary manufacturing locations in Paris and Florence. It became a dominant fixture in the prolific production of porcelain products and created a magnificent name for itself in the realm of highly respected decorative arts. To own a Goldscheider piece was a glorious treasure: a symbol of high wealth and status.

The company employed many different artists who burgeoned into some of the most influential and famous individuals in their work and talent. While producing numerous types of items, artists

Entitled Hyliothrope, this bust is a fantastic example of Art Nouveau sculpture

Entitled Hyliothrope, this bust is a fantastic example of Art Nouveau sculpture

of the Goldscheider factory produced works of historical revivalism, art deco, and art nouveau. The factory created over ten thousand different and striking models in these and various other astoundingly magnificent styles. All the while, these objects won prizes and particularly immense attention at universal exhibitions and world’s fairs.

Though the Goldscheider family business experienced enormous success, wartime Austria shook their history forever. When Nazi’s invaded Vienna, the relentless Gestapo stumbled into the Goldscheider factory. Fortunately, a worker in the basement was able to hear the clamor above and quickly hid all the original molds from possibly theft or destruction. Clever as this worker was, the molds were never uncovered by the ruthless Nazis. One member of the large Goldscheider family, Peter Goldscheider was able to escape to the United States, vowing to return to retrieve the molds. Twenty years later, Peter unearthed the hidden molds and revealed their precious meaning and timeless qualities to the world. A story of success and endearing truth, the Goldscheider business still flourishes in artistic production today.

In their enormous success, Goldscheider manufacturers set the standard of style for exquisite Art Nouveau sculpture. The movement became immensely popular at the turn of the 19th century

A fine terra cotta sculpture modeled by artist A. Bertrand and created by Goldscheider of Vienna

A fine terra cotta sculpture modeled by artist A. Bertrand and created by Goldscheider of Vienna

Europe, situating itself as one of the most revolutionary and praised art movements of its time.  As Goldscheider artists and sculptures were known for their fluidity in design and realistic depictions, the international public praised Goldscheider for fully embodying the popular Art Nouveau movement. Inspired by natural forms, the art nouveau style was compromised of swirling curvilinear lines, harmonizing female forms, and organic subject matter.

Bertrand, an acclaimed artist of the Goldscheider business, produced many different female busts that are still highly praised today. This elegant terracotta, titled

Designed by French sculptor Leveque, this enchanting sculpture exhibits exotic feminine beauty as envisioned by the late 19th-century European imagination

Designed by French sculptor Leveque, this enchanting sculpture exhibits exotic feminine beauty as envisioned by the late 19th-century European imagination

Hyliothrope bust evokes all characteristics of an art nouveau piece. The young, elegant maiden is adorned by gold flowers and leaves that envelop her and completely parallel her with nature. Her warm smile invites the viewer into admiration and her form is timeless.

Leveque, another highly skilled French artist employed by the Goldscheider manufacturers, created an ideal vision of the 19th century Western European idea of feminine beauty. In this period, Europeans were within an intense fascination for the striking differences and extraordinarily unique beauty of Eastern and African countries and their women. While many artists and admirers did not travel to these countries, they constructed fantasies and superbly elegant imaginations of the locale and people of these orientalist places. Specifically, this bust represents the European ideal of the North African woman. Supremely beautiful tanned skin encapsulates the terra cotta piece and a flowing head scarf completes the exotic features. All the while, mastery in the Art Nouveau style presents itself: the woman’s slopping shoulders, the elegant curves and swirls of her dress, and the supremely ladylike profile of her face.

The immediate Goldscheider success, which has prevailed to today, was due to not only highly intelligent business men, but an international market that consistently praised its pieces. The company’s extraordinary and remarkable history of achievement coupled with its timeless, astonishingly beautiful, and expertly crafted pieces has secured its influence and place in artistic manufacturers.

 

 

Traditional and Transformative: Japanese Meiji Period Art

March 5th, 2015 | posted by Ludovic Rousset

The long-lasting Japanese Meiji era, beginning in 1868 and extending most recently into 2012, characterizes some of the largest social, economic, and cultural changes in Japan. Most

This impeccable Japanese cabinet is a stunning example of Meiji-period furniture

This impeccable Japanese cabinet is a stunning example of Meiji-period furniture

importantly, this period represented the change from a feudal society, into a more socially mobile and modern environment. Japanese ports were now open to external influences, bringing in an unstoppable amount of artistic and cultural influence from the west. Japanese artists took to these new methods, styles, and traditions, and appropriated them into their own practice. Oil painting, usage of perspective, and new mediums now found a solidified place in Japanese artistic practice.

Now reconciling both the new Western and traditional Japanese art, artists created a vast amount of artistic items: folding screens, hanging scrolls, and decorative objects. Artistic production amount in this period was at an all-time high and surpassed any other previous period. Decorative art was in the forefront of everyone’s mind, each artist constantly seeking out a new, more innovative style. Particularly, Meiji Period furniture grew immensely in popularity and value. As a commodity, western cities longed to own it and Japanese artisans excitedly produced it.

Known as a shodana, this remarkable work is both beautiful and practical

Known as a shodana, this remarkable work is both beautiful and practical

This Japanese Period Meiji Display Cabinet, constructed around 1900, represents exceptional and ideal Japanese artistic characteristics blended with hints of Western features. Known to maintain all activities, such as reading, writing, and eating, at floor level, pre-Meiji period Japanese artisans rarely produced any living furniture at a tall height. However, with the introduction of Western conceptions and traditions of dining and living, some Japanese artisans started building vertically instead of horizontally. At seventy-two inches high, this would have been considered quite tall at the time.

Exquisite Shibayama inlay of bronze, ivory and mother-of-pearl inform the entire piece

Exquisite Shibayama inlay of bronze, ivory and mother-of-pearl inform the entire piece

Called a “shodana” or book cabinet, the hardwood structure is crafted from zelkova or paulownia wood, materials native to the southwest and eastern Asian regions. Crafted from the wood are four compartments that are hidden behind sliding doors.  Multiple other compartments are hidden behind the magnificent chest, as secure places for Japanese tea accoutrements and other living accessories. This intriguing, yet highly outstanding display cabinet, offers true grace and beauty in its design and structure.

Decorating the closed compartments of the display case are genre scenes of Japanese cranes, considered as very symbolic in Japan, with a Shibayama inlay of bronze, ivory, and mother of pearl. This inlay of precious materials creates magnificent geisha and meticulous landscape scenes. On each scene, there are strong hints of traditional Japanese style painting. For example, low, hovering gold clouds infiltrate the landscapes and embody an entity of their own. However, these purely Japanese depictions are infiltrated with Western optical perspectives and proportions. All the while, though, these exquisite designs offer a window into Japanese scenery and ideals. Even further, they offer a peek into the emotional draws of the artisan.

King of Glass, Glass of Kings

February 26th, 2015 | posted by Danielle Halikias
This captivating Moser water pitcher exhibits the exceptional "Amberina "ombre coloring.

This captivating Moser water pitcher exhibits the exceptional “Amberina “ombre coloring.

The unassuming, yet highly visited, spa town of Karlovy Vary sits in the western Czech Republic and holds one of the most influential and significant glass manufacturing companies in Europe. Although with humble beginnings, Ludwig Moser’s 19th century shop transformed from a simple polishing and engraving shop to an internationally known and highly regarded class manufacturer. Employing over 400 people and winning awards at multiple international festivals, Ludwig Moser’s shop became a sensation by the turn of the century. Luxurious drinking glasses, glistening vase, and brightly colored glass art pieces were staples to his name and brought enormous attention from courtiers, royalty, and important politicians. Moser quickly became immediately associated with magnificent decorative glass and the pieces themselves became one of the most collected items in the 20th century.

Formed in a classical urn shape in Moser's signature ruby glass, this vase is certainly one of Moser's rarest and most outstanding pieces.

Formed in a classical urn shape in Moser’s signature ruby glass, this vase is certainly one of Moser’s rarest and most outstanding pieces.

While catering to Austro-Hungarian royalty and creating personalized pieces for figures such as Edward VII, Moser was also making strides in new methods of creating decorative glass. With the help of the most prestigious designers, Moser swapped out plain clear glass for full colored glass in foliate or floral designs. As in this Moser Amberina Glass Pitcher, a colorful spectrum of design added uniqueness and life to his pieces. An exceptional amber ombre color covers the magnificent pitcher and is adorned with hand painted natural designs: nearly mystically colored oak leaves, low relief molded acorns, and life-like insects. The long neck of the pitcher terminates in a delicate, smooth pouring spout.

Continuing to create magnificent glass pieces, Moser also actively took part in International Festivals and Expositions in order to show case his best pieces. By exhibiting in London, Vienna, Belgium, and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Moser expanded his audiences, clientele, and prestige. One such piece created for an exposition is this urn shaped ruby glass vase. Created in 1885, the deep red color demonstrates Moser’s signature ruby glass. Decorating this magnificent, rich color is gilt accented designs of colored oak leaves and flowers connected by thin, delicate vines. Standing twenty-two inches tall, this vase calls gracious attention to itself in its all-over ornate and lavish design that allow peeks of the outstanding ruby base to reveal itself and sophisticated shape.

By using different colored glass for his decorative objects, Moser was able to achieve pieces so unique that they were immediately recognizable amongst any

This delightful amber glass coffee pot is a wonderful example of the incredible enamelwork of the legendary Moser glassmakers.

This delightful amber glass coffee pot is a wonderful example of the incredible enamelwork of the legendary Moser glassmakers.

other decorative glass piece. This amber glass coffee pot demonstrates the immense talent that Moser crafters possessed in enamel work. The entire body of this three rounded section pot boasts incredibly detailed foliate and floral design. Alluring purples, whites, rich golds, and teals adorn this piece, creating intricate flowers and scrolling vines that leave the viewer’s eye dazzled. Topping the pot is a mystically carved glass turkey that finishes the extravagant, yet refined, piece.

All in such incredible shape, Moser pieces such as these are rare and incredibly special. More importantly, these pieces demonstrate the advanced and remarkable talent that Moser craftsman possessed. In the first decade of the twentieth century, Ludwig Moser’s son, Leo, took over the workshop and continued to expand its market, talent, and extraordinary reputation.

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